Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability: Linking Climate and Development Policy

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Environment, general. Wallacher, Johannes. Related item. Printed edition:: ; ISBN: Summary Rich nations are mainly responsible for global greenhouse gas emissions, and they are financially and institutionally better placed to adapt to the impacts of global climate change.

Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability: Linking Climate and Development Policy

This volume examines the way climate change is affecting the lives and environments of the poor. It provides a global picture of these impacts as well as finer detail on specific regions. The result of a major research project co-funded by various scientific and development organisations, it combines scientific results about the causes, consequences, and economics of climate change with ethical implications for development policy and sustainability.

Analysing and synthesising vast data sets from a multitude of disciplines including climate science, economics, hydrology and agricultural research, it seeks new methods of combining climate change mitigation, adaptation, development, and poverty reduction in ways that are effective, efficient and equitable. A guiding principle of the project is that new alliances of state and non-state sector partners are urgently required to establish cooperative responses to the threats posed by climate change. This volume offers a vital policy framework for linking our response to this change with progressive principles of global justice and sustainable development.

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An Assessment of Global Climate Change: Mitigation, Adaptation and Sustainable Development

Online ISSN See all formats and pricing Online. Prices are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include postage and handling if applicable. Volume 40 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 39 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 38 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 37 Issue Nov , pp. Volume 36 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 35 Issue 2 Nov , pp.

Volume 34 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 33 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 32 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 31 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 30 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 29 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 28 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 27 Issue 2 Nov , pp. Volume 26 Issue 2 Nov , pp. New data streams from remote sensing products to local environmental sensors and social media are being increasingly harnessed as indicators of social, ecological, and infrastructural change Donahugh et al.

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Keeping up-to-date data on the state of urban natural resources, such as the risk level of street trees, can help identify where resilience making measures need to be implemented. Social media derived data are fast becoming a vast and instantaneous source of information on people's attitudes, values, and activity, which is critical for understanding why, when, and how people make use of green infrastructure and nature in the city Ilieva and McPhearson For example, a recent study in New York City used social media derived data for the first time to understand why people use some parks more than others to examine the social equity of urban park benefits that are not accessible equally to all Hamstead et al.

Data sources from Open Street Map for building and roads data, remote sensing from Landsat for land cover, census data sets for social demographics and population density, tax assessor database for detailed built infrastructure characteristics, social media data, downscaled climate projections, fine grained weather data, and more are becoming more widely available for cities around the world every year. Furthermore, available health and well-being data, social perceptions, identities, values, and behaviors can be used to identify how different sociodemographic groups make use of and benefit from nature-based solutions.

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Innovative methodologies that use on-the-go data gathering that take advantage of highly extended technologies such as cellphone usage and citizen science approaches can be harnessed to gather more detailed and high-quality evidence on how nature-based solutions may affect different sociodemographic groups. Inspired by traditions of ecosystem service assessments, much of the evidence base so far developed on nature-based solutions in cities has focused on the functions that they provide and how these can be evaluated EC , Kabisch et al. The result is a growing momentum behind an approach to evidence building that is focused on the kinds of services that nature-based solutions provide, if only they were implemented in the right way.

Although such an evidence base is necessary, our dialogue reveals that it is far from sufficient. It is critical to develop more evidence about the nature of the implementation challenges involved, how this affects or distorts the delivery of intended ecosystem services and how these issues might be overcome.

Participants in the Cities IPCC dialogue were particularly concerned with the challenge of securing investment in nature-based solutions. Unlike their mainstream, hard engineered counterparts there is limited experience to date among the policy and investment communities in calculating the benefits of nature-based solutions over time and how these might be evaluated.

Questions were raised as to whether existing approaches to evaluation e. There was a call to identify ways to assess nonmaterial values of urban nature but also to find ways to communicate these findings in ways that are persuasive, relevant, and impactful in the context of city planning and design. Mainstreaming and upscaling nature-based solutions in urban systems will require major investments, both in terms of retrofitting existing structures or establishing entirely new cityscapes.

Climate Change - GNHRE

New policy and governance frameworks need to come hand in hand with investment models for ensuring continuity and maintenance of nature-based solutions postscaling Bai et al. A case study to this direction is shown in box 2. It provides financial support to new greening projects that otherwise would not be funded, such as green spaces, tree planting, vertical greening or green roofs.

It also accepts private contributions who want to contribute to greening the city. The premise of the model is that green infrastructure on private land creates public benefit by reducing the urban heat island effect, enhancing biodiversity and reducing air pollution and stormwater runoff.

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  • This justifies using public funds to incentivize greening privately owned space. The private benefits of improved amenity are recognized by requiring projects to be matched dollar for dollar with private funds. In this way, it leverages private finance to double the greening outcome. The contribution of nature-based solutions to climate related risk reduction must be based on solid statistical and geospatial data, and it must also be projected into the future, considering changes in climate and other framework conditions and the long lifespan of urban infrastructure.

    In addition, there are behavioral aspects around risk and the drivers of risk perception that should be better understood in the context of nature-based solutions and that may affect the way one would want to influence or direct investment from a nature-based perspective. For example, insurance companies may seek to encourage perceptions of risk and associated investment that assumes risk realization, whereas a nature-based solutions approach may instead direct investment in green infrastructure that promotes risk mitigation and the notion of cobenefits.

    Another issue that was raised was around situations where private investment leads to the enjoyment of public benefits at the community level. These scenarios need to be better understood from cost and benefit sharing and behavioral perspectives. It is tempting to think that way forward relating to collaborative research and coproduction is not possible within current planning and fiscal timelines.

    This does not have to be the case.

    Science and religion in dialogue over the global commons

    New mechanisms for long-term planning Stuart , Littke , Bourguignon , Scott et al. One of the more promising ways to bridge the gaps and scale nature-based solution science and practice outward is to focus on innovation. Innovation is already occurring in developing and testing new nature-based solutions themselves, although this new technology has a long way to go to be fully mainstreamed and retrofitted into city making.

    However, there is potential innovation in the way the cocreation processes occur and are elaborated on.