De Gaulle: The Man Who Defied Six US Presidents

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He asked for an English-speaking aide and Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel was given the job. On 8 June de Gaulle visited Weygand, who believed it was "the end" and that after France was defeated Britain would also soon sue for peace. He hoped that after an armistice the Germans would allow him to retain enough of a French Army to "maintain order" in France. He gave a "despairing laugh" when de Gaulle suggested fighting on.

It was thought that half a million men could be evacuated to French North Africa , provided the British and French navies and air forces coordinated their efforts. In his memoirs de Gaulle mentioned his support for the proposal to continue the war from French North Africa, but at the time he was more in favour of the plan to form a " redoubt " in Brittany than he later admitted. Italy entered the war on 10 June. That day de Gaulle was present at two meetings with Weygand he only mentions one in his memoirs , one at the defence committee and a second where Weygand barged into Reynaud's office and demanded an armistice.

When Weygand asked de Gaulle, who wanted to carry on fighting, if he had "anything to suggest", de Gaulle replied that it was the government's job to give orders, not to make suggestions. De Gaulle wanted Paris to be stubbornly defended by de Lattre , but instead it was declared an open city. De Gaulle's fighting spirit made a strong impression on the British. He then returned to attend a cabinet meeting, at which it was clear that there was a growing movement for an armistice, and which decided that the government should move to Bordeaux rather than de Gaulle's preference for Quimper in Brittany.

This time few other major French figures were present apart from Reynaud and Baudoin. He was an hour late, and his account is not reliable. Reynaud demanded that France be released from the agreement which he had made with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in March , so that France could seek an armistice. De Gaulle wrote that Churchill was sympathetic to France seeking an armistice, provided that an agreement was reached about what was to happen to the French fleet. This claim was later made by apologists for the Vichy Regime, e. However, is not supported by other eyewitnesses Churchill himself, Roland de Margerie , Spears who agree that Churchill said that he "understood" the French action but that he did not agree with it.

De Gaulle was dissuaded from resigning by the Interior Minister Georges Mandel , who argued that the war was only just beginning, and that de Gaulle needed to keep his reputation unsullied. De Gaulle arrived at Bordeaux on 14 June, and was given a new mission to go to London to discuss the potential evacuation to North Africa. He had a brief meeting with Admiral Darlan about the potential role of the French Navy. Next morning no aircraft could be found so he had to drive to Brittany, where he visited his wife and daughters, and his aged mother whom he never saw again, as she died in July , before taking a boat to Plymouth he asked the skipper if he would be willing to carry on the war under British flag , where he arrived on 16 June.

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He ordered the boat Pasteur , with a cargo of munitions, to be diverted to a British port, which caused some members of the French Government to call for him to be put on trial. He telephoned Reynaud — they were cut off during the conversation and had to resume later — with the news that the British had agreed.

De Gaulle was now in imminent danger of arrest. Reynaud still had control of secret government funds until the handover of power the next day.

France, The United States And De Gaulle

It has been suggested that he ordered de Gaulle to go to London, but no written evidence has ever been found to confirm this. Georges Mandel also refused to come. At around on the morning of 17 June he flew to London on a British aircraft with Edward Spears.

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The escape was hair-raising, with Spears' aide having to run to the hangar at the last minute to fetch a rope to tie on the luggage. Spears claimed that de Gaulle had been reluctant to come, and that he had pulled him into the aircraft at the last minute, although de Gaulle's biographer does not accept this. Jean Laurent brought , gold francs in secret funds provided to him by Reynaud.

De Gaulle landed at Heston Airport soon after on 17 June Duff Cooper Minister of Information had an advance copy of the text of the address, to which there were no objections. The cabinet eventually agreed after individual lobbying, as indicated by a handwritten amendment to the cabinet minutes. De Gaulle's Appeal of 18 June exhorted the French people not to be demoralized and to continue to resist the occupation of France.

He also — apparently on his own initiative — declared that he would broadcast again the next day. Few listened to it, although it was published in some newspapers in metropolitan mainland France. The speech was largely aimed at French soldiers who were then in Britain after being evacuated from Norway and Dunkirk ; most showed no interest in fighting for de Gaulle's Free French Forces and were repatriated back to France to become German prisoners of war.

In his next broadcast on 19 June de Gaulle denied the legitimacy of the government at Bordeaux. The British Foreign Office protested to Churchill.

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De Gaulle also tried, largely in vain, to attract the support of French forces in the French Empire. After the armistice was signed on 21 June , de Gaulle spoke at on 22 June to denounce it. Jean Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought his appeal was "too personal" and went too far, and that French opinion would not rally to a man who was seen to be operating from British soil.

De Gaulle broadcast again on 24 June.

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The armistice took effect from on 25 June. He claimed erroneously that the French fleet was to be handed over to the Germans. De Gaulle had little success in attracting the support of major figures. Roland de Margerie stayed in France despite his opposition to the armistice.

French President Charles De Gaulle And The Six-Year War (1960)

At this time de Gaulle's followers consisted of a secretary of limited competence, three colonels, a dozen captains, a famous law professor Cassin , and three battalions of legionnaires who had agreed to stay in Britain and fight for him. For a time the New Hebrides were the only French colony to back de Gaulle. He considered withdrawing to Canada to live as a private citizen and waited five days before broadcasting. Spears called on de Gaulle on 5 July and found him "astonishingly objective" and acknowledging that it was the right thing from the British point of view.

Spears reported to Churchill that de Gaulle had shown "a splendid dignity". In his broadcast of 8 July he spoke of the "pain and anger" caused by the attack and that it was a "hateful tragedy not a glorious battle", but that one day the enemy would have used the ships against England or the French Empire, and that the defeat of England would mean "bondage forever" for France. They will either go down both together or both together they will win". On Bastille Day 14 July de Gaulle led a group of between and sailors to lay a wreath at the statue of Ferdinand Foch at Grosvenor Gardens.

His family had left Brittany the other ship which left at the same time was sunk and lived for a time at Petts Wood. As his daughter Anne was terrified by the Blitz they moved to Ellesmere in Shropshire, a four-hour journey from London and where de Gaulle was only able to visit them once a month.

His wife and daughter also lived for a time in the country at Rodinghead House, Little Gaddesden , in Hertfordshire, 45 kilometres 28 miles from central London. A separate letter guaranteed the territorial integrity of the French Empire. General Georges Catroux , Governor of French Indo-China which was increasingly coming under Japan's thumb , disapproved of the armistice and congratulated de Gaulle, whom he had known for many years.

He was sacked by Vichy and arrived in London on 31 August; de Gaulle had gone to Dakar, but they met in Chad four weeks later. He was the most senior military figure to defect to the Free French. On average he spoke on BBC radio three times a month. This was the dawn of the Vichy regime. De Gaulle's subsequent speeches reached many parts of the territories under the Vichy regime, helping to rally the French resistance movement and earning him much popularity amongst the French people and soldiers.

De Gaulle began by making frequent use of "I" and "me" in his war-time speeches, but over time, their use declined. However, claims that de Gaulle was surrounded by Cagoulards , Royalists and other right-wing extremists are untrue. Many leading figures of the Free French and the Resistance, e. A newspaper France was also soon set up. De Gaulle organised the Free French Forces and the Allies gave increasing support and recognition to de Gaulle's efforts. It was an all-encompassing coalition of resistance forces, ranging from conservative Catholics like himself to communists.

By early , the "Fighting French" movement, as it was now called, gained rapidly in power and influence; it overcame Vichy in Syria and Lebanon, adding to its base. Dealing with the French communists was a delicate issue, for they were under Moscow's control and the USSR was friendly with Germany in —41 as a result of the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact.

De Gaulle's policy then became one of friendship directly with Moscow, but Stalin showed little interest.

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It is the only Western allied formation to have fought until the end of the war in the East. In his dealings with the British and Americans both referred to as the "Anglo-Saxons", in de Gaulle's parlance , he always insisted on retaining full freedom of action on behalf of France and was constantly on the verge of losing the Allies' support.

Some writers have sought to deny that there was deep and mutual antipathy between de Gaulle and British and American political leaders. De Gaulle personally had ambivalent feelings about Britain, possibly in part because of childhood memories of the Fashoda Incident. Never did the Anglo-Saxons really treat us as real allies. They never consulted us, government to government, on any of their provisions. For political purpose or by convenience, they sought to use the French forces for their own goals, as if these forces belonged to them, alleging that they had provided weapons to them [ I deliberately adopted a stiffened and hardened attitude In addition, de Gaulle harboured a suspicion of the British in particular, believing that they were seeking to seize France's colonial possessions in the Levant.

Winston Churchill was often frustrated at what he perceived as de Gaulle's patriotic arrogance, but also wrote of his "immense admiration" for him during the early days of his British exile. Although their relationship later became strained, Churchill tried to explain the reasons for de Gaulle's behaviour in the second volume of his history of World War II :. He felt it was essential to his position before the French people that he should maintain a proud and haughty demeanour towards " perfidious Albion ", although in exile, dependent upon our protection and dwelling in our midst.

He had to be rude to the British to prove to French eyes that he was not a British puppet.