Conducting crystallography at physiological temperatures has then become an objective. Neutron macromolecular crystallography nMX , whilst pursuing protein structures with protonation states experimentally determinable, has also automatically yielded room-temperature structures. Given also that projects succeed in getting time only where all other methods have failed, X-ray, electron or NMR based, it is clear that in structural biology there is a strategic importance of this method.
Synchrotron facilities are now also adopting the X-ray laser methods for delivery of streams of micron-sized samples and thereby are also yielding results at physiological temperatures albeit not free of radiation damage like the X-ray lasers.
NCBR - National Centre for Biomolecular Research
To my mind an amazing accomplishment is the room-temperature crystal structure of the 30S ribosome using the Stanford LCLS . The use of streams of micron-sized crystals raises the question of variations in those samples of the biological molecules being studied.
In making comparisons between a structure at cryotemperature and the same one at room temperature one has to be sure that each model refinement is at least at finality. The importance of refereeing of the underpinning data of a submitted article about a new crystal structure is to my mind paramount . Even more, where comparisons between structures at two temperatures are concerned, then both should be refined to convergence. Validation of the structures of biological macromolecules is still developing . In summary, the physical methods of crystallography, microscopy and spectroscopy continue to strive for, and do clearly deliver, biologically relevant results.
Prediction of some aspects of biological function from atomic structure is possible, and that are also physiologically relevant. It certainly influenced me as a young physicist looking towards what to pick as a research career.
The fields of structural biology and crystallography have to my mind great contributions to make in the future. Time will tell but it is unlikely to be in my lifetime. In one of my own research themes studying the basis of the coloration of the lobster shell our explanations cover the molecular basis of the coloration [13, 14] but of course not why the lobster has that colour for its shell. The puzzle of life. What Makes Biology Unique? Considerations on the Autonomy of a Scientific Discipline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Design of a diffractometer and flow cell system for X-ray analysis of crystalline proteins with applications to the crystal chemistry of ribonuclease-S. Catalysis in the crystal: synchrotron radiation studies with glycogenphosphorylase b.
OCM for Enzymology Series Conferences
EMBO J. So do we understand how enzymes work? Structure , 8 , R77—R Neutron macromolecular crystallography. Life Sci. Potential for biomolecular imaging with femtosecond X-ray pulses.
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Nature , , — Molecular and Cellular Biophysics. Meyer B.
Lars T. Advances in Organic Crystal Chemistry. Rui Tamura. Advanced Calculations for Defects in Materials. Audrius Alkauskas. Design and Applications of Nanomaterials for Sensors. Jorge M. Matthias J. Computational Photochemistry. Massimo Olivucci. Anjan Barman. Reviews in Fluorescence Chris D. Aromatic C-nitroso Compounds. Mikhail E. Solvation Effects on Molecules and Biomolecules. Sylvio Canuto. Virender K. Electrokinetics in Microfluidics.
Dongqing Li. On-Surface Synthesis. Theory of Phase Transitions in Polypeptides and Proteins. Alexander V. Eli Zysman-Colman. EPR Spectroscopy. Gunnar Jeschke. Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. Vitalij K. Advances in Macromolecules.
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Maria Vittoria Russo. Monodispersed Particles. Tadao Sugimoto. Metallization of Polymers 2. Edward Sacher. Controlled Polymerization and Polymeric Structures. Akihiro Abe. Nucleic Acids in the Gas Phase. Benedetto Corain.
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Photophysics of Ionic Biochromophores. Mario Barbatti. Jeffrey H. Functional Metal Oxides.
Satishchandra Balkrishna Ogale. Fluorescence Studies of Polymer Containing Systems. New Frontiers in Photochromism. Masahiro Irie. Weronika Walkosz. Reviews in Plasmonics Martin Billeter. Wolfgang Schrepp. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Peter D.
Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion.